Surface water includes water collected from streams, rivers and dams. The water from these sources could be contaminated by animal and human wastes, chemical run-offs or it might be running the risk of algal blooms. The level of contamination determines the level of treatment.
What is Surface Water?
When it rains, water falls to the ground which either evaporates into the atmosphere, soaks into the ground or runs off into rivers, lakes, creeks, streams, other body of water or drains. It is the fresh water that can be seen above ground such as a river, creek, stream or lake that is referred to as surface water.
The fact that surface water is open to various elements means that it is also vulnerable to being contaminated by the water run off that collects dirt and other contaminants as it makes its way to the water system. It is also open to contamination from insects and animals as well as humans.
The greatest risk of health comes from contaminants like disease causing microorganisms. Disinfection alone does not remove chemicals and contaminants so other treatment processes may be necessary.
Enviro Concepts offers a range of surface water treatment products that are pre-engineered, pre-assembled and factory tested to minimize site installation time and ensure reliable operation. Some of the treatment methods include:
Filtration is used to remove solids and some dissolved material from water. There are many filtration devices available and microorganism and particle removal varies with each filter type. For example, an activated carbon filter is most effective in removing/ reducing chemicals, but it will not remove bacteria or viruses.
Micro or Ultra filtration membrane filters will remove particles between 0.1 – 0.01 microns and can effectively treat water by removing sediment and bacteria. However, Reverse osmosis is extremely efficient for removal of microorganisms and residual chemicals from water.
You can take a look at a simple filtration chart on our membrane filtration post here.
Chlorine Disinfection is a common form of disinfection against harmful bacteria and viruses. Surface water supplies usually require filtration prior to chlorination for the process to be effective.
UV Disinfection by ultraviolet radiation is also effective against most bacteria, viruses and protozoa. UV systems require relatively low maintenance and do not require the addition of chemicals. However, UV treatment does not remove chemicals from water.
We, at Enviro Concepts, are available to discuss how you can meet your surface water requirements. Contact us and we can find the best solution for you.