Coagulation, Flocculation, Disinfection and pH Control are essential part of wastewater treatment. Along with biological and physical treatment processes, chemical processes trigger chemical reactions to achieve various standards of water. Enviro Concepts will analyse client needs and recommend the right chemical dosing regimen for you in our water treatment discharge or recycle systems.

Coagulation and Flocculation

All wastewater, especially surface water, contain both dissolved and suspended particles. Coagulation and Flocculation can occur as independent or successive steps to overcome the forces stabilising the suspended particles, allowing particle collision and growth of floc (grouped particles).

Coagulation is a process whereby a coagulant is added to the water to “destabilise” colloidal suspensions. Coagulants with positive charges are added to the water to neutralise the negative charges on dispersed non-settled solids. Once the charge is neutralised, the small suspended particles are capable of sticking together forming slightly larger particles called microflocs, which are not visible to the naked eye. The water surrounding the newly formed microflocs should be clear.

Following the first state of coagulation, flocculation can follow. Flocculation is a gentle mixing stage that increases the particle size from submicroscopic microfloc to visible suspended particles. Once the floc has reached it optimum size and strength, the water is ready for the sedimentation process.

The selection of the coagulants and flocculants is based on the input water and the nature of the suspended solids that have to be removed. If you have a question on your industrial requirements, send it here.

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There are 3 main ways of disinfection – UV, Ozone and Chlorine. For our wastewater treatment, we often use chlorination process, however, UV can be used in place of chlorine if specified by the client or the project. The application of chlorine or chlorine compounds to wastewater is usually for the purpose of pathogen reduction. Chorine dosage vary based on pathogen loading and therefore chlorine demand, wastewater characteristics and discharge requirements.


pH is an indicator of acidity and alkalinity of the water. As a chemical component of the wastewater, pH has direct influence on wastewater treatability. Once you have identified the parameters (pollutants and impurities in the wastewater), you can determine the starting and ending of pH values and therefore propose the specific treatment procedure and the selection of chemicals best suited for the treatment.

It takes residence or contact time in wastewater treatment for pH to adjust properly. Different chemicals have varying reaction times, which in turn has a major effect on pH adjustment and control.

Enviro Concepts Disinfection and pH control systems are designed to dose and monitor Chlorine and pH in water.  Using automatic Oxidation-Retuction Potential (ORP), Free Available Chlorine (FAC) and dual pH control, our Disinfection and pH Controllers ensure water is treated properly based on the requirement for treatment of the trade waste.

Download the Disinfection & pH Control Specification Sheet here.

If you have a question for us, send us your query on the free estimate page.

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